1853, May. Liebig & Woehler's Annalen der Chemie, 86, p. 208 to 215. K. Hauser's experiments with telluriate of potash; thence in Fechner's, Central. Blatt, No. 37, page 723; thence in Zeit.fuer Hom. Klinik, 1853; thence in Hirschel's Archives, 1855, p. 245, No. 22, p. 189,
Introduction (1854). - We, provers of drugs, occupy a singular position, such as has never yet been held by investigators of nature. A prodigious majority of physicians pay no regard to us; this indeed were nothing new; the like has often happened before, but has never lasted so long a time.
More than nine tenths, perhaps ninety-nine hundredths, of the physicians, set themselves, like slippery, algae-covered stones, against all drug provings. Every little minority which accepts these requires that great masses be swallowed after s violent fashion, and fixes its investigating eye upon the excrement, as the non plus ultra. Sweat, urine, intestinal and pulmonary excrement, have high seats of honor in their temple. They are masters, not upon the professional chair but in the stool.
If we come now to the school of Hahnemann, things are not much better. Nine tenths or ninety-nine hundredths of this minority are swayed by the fashions, being also adorers of fence-rail doses; the frog which jumps into the well must be at least a bull-frog.
The very worst resistance, however, comes from those among us who-as the deer, according to Bechstein, nibbles by preference at every new kind of tree and destroys it — also only desire the old-accustomed forest; it appears to them as a hankering for strange novelties or oddities, if one wants to go farther than in the old wood. One finds himself, therefore, in the awkward position of being compelled to ask a thousand pardons for proving something new, and spending one's life and body for the common welfare! While all naturalists, in every other department, receive every contribution, be it ever so trifling, with thankful acknowledgments – on the other hand, a prover of drugs is considered as a sort of a fool, even by those who recognize generally the importance of such proving a upon the healthy, as soon as he proves something which they are scarcely able to remember, as having been a great rarity at the time when they were at college. I will now, therefore, discuss the reason why the proving of Tellurium was made and why it will become one of the most important provings. There were four principal reasons for it:
First. Because, in general, everything ought to be proved and must be proved; and, inasmuch as Tellurium also belongs in the category of “everything,” there is already a sufficient reason for it a priori.
Fourth. I proved Tellurium on the same day, in the morning of which, for the first time in my life, I saw Tellurium and took it into my hands. Now, everything of that kind must, with me, pass as soon as possible over the mucous membrane of the tongue, mouth and pharynx; and I then listen with a more attentive spiritual ear than if a symphony of Beethoven were being performed. I listen eagerly to hear what kind of an answer may be forthcoming from the unknown depths of the human body and life.
All of these four reasons, however, will hardly satisfy a sprawling criticaster, because he has other ears which have no such longing. The following, therefore, may serve as a justification in the meantime.
Tellurium is such a rare metal, that the majority of chemists have never seen it. Although discovered since 1782, its ores are still rarities in the collections of minerals, and its artificial chemical preparations and combinations are still greater curiosities in the laboratories.
If, now, somebody should prove Tellurium for the sole reason that it is a rarity, there would indeed be something droll about him; but it will probably be conceded that he who does not want it to be proved because it is so very rare, must be taken to be much droller still!
Tellurium, judging by the sources from which it is obtained, is one of the neighbors of Gold. Gold is found only in elevated mountains, and moreover only near the surface, disappearing again in the depths. On the surface it has been laid bare here and there, and its surroundings have been destroyed by the influence of air and water. Gold is noble, i. e. durable; soft as love, and heavy as Earnestness; it has maintained itself through destructive centuries, and during the crushing storms of ages, it has remained just, what it was; it only sank in the loose masses of stone and earth, and is now mostly found in the beds of rivers and in layers of sand, in the form of grains, scales and nuggets. There man, the greedy wader, washes it free from the mud and the sand, and collects it in little bags. Where man detects gold in its rocky veins, he takes upon himself the office of those centuries, and he throws the ore under the stamping mill, where, with all its associate ores and gangues, it is crushed in a shorter time, and where mud and rubble are separated from it.
Here we see the reason why the Tellurium which exists associated with the rare Gold, is still more rarely to be procured. The mills pound it and the washings carry it away; but the same has been done by the great washings of the world; and in the deposits of the rivers, and, still more, of the oceans, there may, yea there must, be a great quantity of Tellurium.
Though I am by no means worthy to direct the attention of the provers of drugs to those muddy deposits of the sea, still I must here interpolate something, and remember my most esteemed friend, the Magus near the Elbe, who, on the occasion of my proving of Selenium, the near neighbor of Sulphur, thought of it, that the chemists had discovered Selenium in the mud of the factories of Sulphuric acid. I answered this in my own way, that is, by adopting his way. Is not mud similar to mud? And if diseases come from the one mud, and also out of the factories, why not fetch remedies out of similar mud and similar factories?
I have however, in truth, neither in the case of the Selenium nor in that of the Tellurium, once thought of the mud. But, speaking of mud the most sublime contemplations suggest themselves. As Hamlet says: “To die; to sleep; to sleep! perchance to dream; ay, there's the rub; for in that sleep of death, what dreams may come, when we have shuffled off this mortal coil, must give us pause.” But what kind of life may spring from this mud, that is the rub!
Mud is something universal. As the dust in the air, so the mud passes through the fluid, and with the fluid, everywhere and from everywhere, is deposited. Without mud no vegetable, no animal life. And what the chemists, up to the end of the first half of our century, have proved to be essential or accidental constituent elements of living bodies, is certainly far from being all, yea, those small quantities which at the present day “are comprised under the errors of observation,” will become, every year, less and less, and many a thing may still reasonably be expected to be discovered in this region (compare Kirchhoff, 1864). Enough, the mud particles containing Tellurium have passed through the Streams containing gold in ___Tl1r o' ToI oo, TooI oo, lI ' lI[ •• 0 0;___ have also passed through many which once contained gold; therefore, through nearly all of them; they have passed and pass into the ocean.
From this, however, among other things, come oysters and Codfish, herrings and sardines, yea, cod liver oil and foam of the sea waves which diffuse themselves all over hungry and bathing, healthy and sick mankind. Thus those small quantities reach, in a large and mighty circuit, the life of men.
Of all those who shudder at such millionth part contemplations as these, we may, as was done to the pharisees in the Scripture, “stop the mouths” by referring to the existence, the diffusion, the indispensableness of fluoric add. The teeth, as is known, contain it on their surfaces, in the enamel; the whole existence of the teeth is evidently conditioned by it. The teeth inevitably hasten to their ruin if the fluoric acid be wanting; everybody knows the consequences hereof. But besides this, fluoric acid is also in all and every bone, and it must be there; all the firmness also of the bones must mainly be conditioned by it; there must be found Fluoride of Calcium in every bone; none can exist without it. Already twenty-nine (now thirty) years ago, I wrote to Stapf: Men have found at last Fluoride of Calcium in the bones of oxen; shall we wait till oxen find them in the bones of men?
Liebig finally found them in human bones, at least in those from Pompeii. But inasmuch as Fluoric acid must be found in all bones except it be wanting through the influence of disease-as sometimes, in an analogous way, iron is wanting in the blood (Manganese would be more analogous yet) — from what other source then, than from the plants, do the animals derive it? It therefore must be present in hay and grain, probably most abundantly in beans, peas and lentils. If now it is found in all these plants, it would be folly to assume that the plants only contain it accidentally, nay, even simply in order that it might be deposited in animals and men. Fluorine must also have a function in vegetable life; if then Fluorine has such a function, it would be equally silly to assume that, with animals and men, it has no other business but to make the enamel of the teeth harder; and as I may now, supported by the provings, maintain, also all the bones, surely Fluorine has still many other functions. All this is taught by the provings upon the healthy, and by innumerable cures of the sick. Both the provings and cures of course are made only by potencies; for Fluorine likewise is always present in the body only in the state of diffusion, extension, tension, potentiation, and, like only acts upon like, this is an old axiom.
And if the physiological significance of one single___ I___ is secured, no more reasonable objection can be made to the possibility of a significance also of others: and it would be nonsense if, after this is once secured, one should say: thus far and no farther the decimals of such like fractions in life shall have their value, and shall be allowed to act! It is a matter of course that it must go on, still much farther on, and ___li. ill, I'v,___ will soon have to be acknowledged, in healthy life, to be indispensable and physiologically necessary constituent elements.
A substance which has existence is also necessary; what was necessary was conditioned, and it, in turn, conditions again. That which conditions has a function, a purpose, and, if you please, a use, a destination. This destination must be found out; but this is only possible by presupposing it in general. That which is presupposed in general, however, can again, in special, only be found by investigation. Every stubborn resistance to progress, therefore, earns for itself the very same treatment which is the portion of the mules on Alpine roads; that is, incessant whippings from behind, till they move forward again.
The basis of all investigation into the significance and function of substances, is their influence upon man. Provings upon the healthy give us a portrait and knowledge of the corporeal and spiritual function of each. This we must, first of all, know before we can take a step further.
Therefore inasmuch as Tellurium exists, Tellurium must be proved. Tellurium may exist everywhere in millionths and billionths. Tellurium ought to be proved in___ I___ and ___U___, etc., even if it were never to become a healing medium. The doctrine of medicines must be conceived and built up as a science, and as such it has nothing whatever to do with the art of healing. Its object is action of the substances, it being a matter of indifference whether a substance cause something to appear, to show itself, or whether it causes something to appear no more, to cease to show itself. And inasmuch as both of the causations are action, they both will be an object for science; whether such things be pleasing to the single individuals or not is a matter of indifference to science. But Tellurium promises to become a very important medicine, for it is one of the neighbors of Gold.
In my preliminaries to the“ Pharmacology considered as a Natural Science” (not yet printed), I have pointed out the probability of a most important proposition which I discovered when treating lepra, in that all those earths which are associated as neighbors, also correspond with pathologically similar diseases or groups of symptoms; therefore, much as they may vary otherwise in their effects, still in this respect again they stand near each other, just as they had formerly been together in the rocks and gangues of the ore. Experience will soon show whether this be the case with Tellurium,
The very same is true or the plants which thrive chiefly on certain kinds of mountains. It is not by a mere accident, but in accordance with law, that Belladonna, which grows upon limestone mountains and cannot live without lime, is not only a good sequent of Calcarea (showing always a relationship), but also is so often useful in the same diseases in which Calcarea is indicated, that every practitioner, knowingly or not, gives these remedies to the sick, in succession. This therefore, already at the outset, gives a greater importance to Tellurium.
Tellurium is found in Transylvania in the pure metallic state, in veins in porphyry, the same formation which also contains pure gold, in quartz associated with pyrites and black blende; as leafy ore in veins in porphyry, especially in clay-porphyry with Lead, Iron, Arsenic and Zinc ores; as type-ore in clayey syenite porphyry with calcareous spar, pyrites, gray copper, rarely with native pure gold; as white ore in porphyry in small veins with gold, blende, gray copper, copper quartz, quartz and pyrites.
Dr. F. A. Genth, in North Carolina, about five miles N. W. of the Washington mine, in Davidson County, found Tellurium as an associate of a gold vein, in small masses reaching the size of a nut, partly in quartz, usually with Manganese ochre, partly oxidized as tellurous acid. Keller's
In the second volume, p. 249, Genth reports that the telluric ore, which he discovered, is Tetradymite or m Bi S 3 + 2 Bi Te 3. There is found with pure gold, in a quartz vein, associated with oxidized Tetradymite, magnetic ore in octahedrous, iron ochre, Malachite, Sillimanite and Pistazite. Out of this North Carolina Tetradymite, Dr. Genth prepared metallic Tellurium. In this way I got into my hands, for the first time, Tellurium, in the pure metallic state, as a rarity which I had never seen before. My first thought was, instantly to take a powder of sugar of milk out of my pocket, to open it and to rub the shining cake of metal, as large as a dollar, upon the sugar of milk, and to shift it thereon to and fro until the white sugar began to assume a grayish hue. This was the treasure which I carried home and which I triturated, in a new mortar suitably prepared, until the grayish hue disappeared under the addition of more sugar of milk in the proportion of about one to ten thousand. I have treated other metals which were difficult to obtain in a pure state, such as Cadmium, Antimony, metallic Arsenic, etc., in the same simple way, and if our only purpose is to make preliminary experiments, I think it quite unnecessary to insist upon a trituration of strict quantitative accuracy. The first experiments were made with this trituration. And inasmuch as they had very peculiar results, and I desire to make comparative experiments with pure bismuth, Dr. Genth complied with my wishes and prepared some Tellurium in the form of a powder, which should be entirely and decidedly free from bismuth. Tellurium which had already been, purified and reduced to the metallic form, was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, precipitated by sulphate of ammonia and thus obtained in a fine powder; but it was not made red-hot. In this preparation, then, the last trace of bismuth was removed. All later experiments have been made with this Tellurium in the form of powder. I have given it to Boericke and Tafel for exchange and sale.
The action of Tellurium upon man had not been investigated at all, when the following provings were made. All that we knew of its action, was what could be learned from C. G. Gmelin's experiments upon animals. He gave the oxide of Tellurium, which had been prepared from the leafy ore according to Klapproth's method. In a rabbit which swallowed four grains, and the third day ten grains, and which was found dead the fifth day; on opening the abdominal cavity, an odor like garlic was diffused (p.44) which Gmelin, however, (p. 46) describes as being like that of the radish. It was believed at that time, that the oxide of Tellurium on evaporation gives out an odor similar to that of the black radish. But Berzelius has pointed out that this odor proceeds from Selenium, which it; its common associate in the ore.
This “association with each other,” and likewise what the chemists call the “obstinate adhering together,” might also, according to my theory, become important. So far as the present experiments and comparisons of the remedies go, it is, like the already mentioned neighborhood of locality in which substances are found, an assurance that the remedy would be serviceable in the same families of disease, i. e., in similar groups of symptoms which are in close relation; the other fact, the“ obstinate adhering,” seems to me always to point to a great concordance in the effects, together with essential differences (compare Selenium and Tellurium). The chemical affinity likewise indicates simility in the substances, yet more in the physiological departments and always with characteristic contrasts; for instance, in the sides of the body, in the times of the day; in anticipating or postponing, etc.
In Gmelin's experiments with animals, the liver appeared as if bestrewed with red inflammatory spots, the lungs showed only a few red spots. From this the conclusion was drawn, that Tellurium acts pre-eminently upon the liver. Further experiments with both may decide whether this was more the effect of the adhering Selenium or of the Tellurium. Selenium had a quite peculiar and very decided action upon the liver (compare Stapf's Archiv., 12, 3, p. 195, symptoms 36 and 37). It is not merely the fact that Selenium is found in the neighborhood of Tellurium and the fact of its “obstinate adhesion” to the latter metal, but also their relatively near position among the elements that makes these remedies akin. In the electro-chemical grouping of the undecomposed substances, Leopold Gmelin puts Tellurium into one group with Sulph. and Selenium, whilst he associates the Antimony with Phosphorus and Arsenic, and places Bismuth near Plumbum and Argentum. But Tellurium has otherwise, according to its chemical relations great simility with Antimony and Bismuth. According to Berzelius, the salts of the oxide of Tellurium taste almost like those of the oxide of Antimony; according to Koelleuter their action is emetic. L. Gmelin Handbuch d. Chem., Vol. II, p. 874, 5, Berzelius remarks: “Tellurium is, like Oxygen, Sulphur and Selenium, an amphigenic element which forms acids and bases; therefore, chemically, a great curiosity.”
As a remark for future times, the relation of the stoechrometrical numbers may here be given: Oxygen, Sulphur, Zincum, Tellurium, Antimony. The next proving after those of Selenium and Tellurium, should be that of the pure metallic Antimony. It might then be possible to give a very beautiful comparative group. - After that might then follow the oxides and acids, particularly the latter.
C. G. Gmelin's experiments 1824, p. 43. Three grains of the oxide of Tellurium prepared, according to Klaproth's method, were introduced into the stomach of a very lively dog of medium size, together with some meat. After twenty-two minutes, vomiting of a watery slime ensued; the animal lost its liveliness, and would not eat, but drank much water and passed much urine. After four hours the vomiting was repeated several times. After eight hours the appetite returned, and the next day the animal was quite well.
A rabbit was forced to swallow four grains of the oxide of Tellurium made, by means of gum arabic, into six pills. Immediately after swallowing the oxide, the rabbit ate with appetite, and was perfectly well the next day.
On the third day the same rabbit was forced to swallow ten grains of the oxide of Tellurium, made into ten pills with gum arabic (at three p. m.). Immediately after swallowing the pills, the animal lost its liveliness for a time, but soon recovered it and ate with appetite. Also the next day it ate, and there were in general no particular accidents; even in the evening of the same day the animal was lively. On the morning of the third day it was found dead.
On opening the abdominal cavity a peculiar odor was perceived, which reminded one of the odor of garlic; this odor developed itself in laying open the intestines still more. The intestinal canal showed, except distended blood vessels, nothing particular. On opening the stomach, a thick, white, frothy slime made its appearance, in which the mucous membrane of the stomach, which everywhere came off with the greatest facility, seemed to be, as it were, dissolved. An inflammation proper had not taken place. Near the pylorus a quantity of black, ink-like slime was found, which filled all the small and large intestines entirely, as far as the rectum.
This slime was washed off with difficulty, and gave out very strongly the mentioned odor. The rectum itself was void and contracted. The liver was bestrewn with red, inflamed spots; the gall bladder was full of green bile; kidneys and bladder were sound; the ventricles of the heart were filled with a polypus-like coagulum of blood. The serum, not only of the heart but also of the remaining organs, as liver and kidneys, had a violet hue. The heart was not inflamed; the lungs showed, some red spots excepted, nothing particular.
The small quantity of Tellurium which was at my disposal prevented me from making more experiments. Such experiments are, moreover rendered difficult by the circumstance that Tellurium cannot well be given in a suitable form.
Thus much, however, appears from the experiments above described, that Tellurium, even in the form of the oxide, exerts a depressing action upon the canine nervous system, and occasional violent vomiting. With rabbits, the effect indeed is much slower, which may be ascribed either to the insoluble form or, in part also, to the circumstance that these animals have their stomachs constantly filled. The oxide of Tellurium produces a destruction of the mucous membrane of the stomach, and seems to be reduced thereby. The third experiment at least points to this fact; the radish-like odor and the ink-like slime diffused throughout the intestinal canal. At the same time it seems to act preeminently upon the liver (!). So far Gmelio. To this it must be remarked: in the above passage the same odor is called “radish-like, which in a previous passage reminded one of garlic. Now since Selenium appears in connexion with Tellurium, and adheres to it “obstinately;” since Klaproth's method of preparation of Tellurium, before the discovery of Selenium, could not take this latter element into consideration; and since Selenium has an odor like radishes decayed, it is, no doubt, Selenium which here co-operates, and to which also the action upon the” liver“ may be due; because Selenium is one of the greatest “liver remedies,” a fact which the Symptom-coverers knew after the first reading; the ”Science-savers“ however, of course did not. Whoever had learned to read “lists of symptoms” saw it at the first glance; but he who wants first to hatchel, to curry and to comb them, and who goes a hunting with the critical comb, he of course does not see it but something else.
1. C. H–g took, October 26th, 1850, 7 45 p. m., an indefinitely large dose, as a preliminary experiment. After the trituration, the part which adhered to the mortar and pestle was washed off with some alcohol, and the blackish gray fluid mixed with some water, and then swallowed. Immediately a pressure upon a small place behind the vertex; soon violent pressing pain through the metacarpal bone of the right fourth finger, beginning scarcely a minute later and increasing; a confusion in the head behind at both sides and worse towards the backpart. Disagreeable sensation in the stomach; something comes up as far as the pharynx as though a wet eructation were about to occur, but nothing comes up; finally a difficult retching, then an accumulation of water in the mouth. After half an hour accumulation of water in the mouth, retching, then yawning; 8h. 3m. at the outside of the right knee interiorly, a burning aching; 8h 5m., a peculiar pain in the head, above the eyes, deep interiorly in a long line, like pressure from within outwards, worse on the right side; 8h. 15m., inclination to stool without straining and urging.
8.30. Dullness in the head; headache has ceased; feels his fauces and pharynx; has at times a strange sensation, as if round waves pushed against the pharynx below. Feels strange and singular in his whole body, but cannot describe the sensation.
8.44. Violent linear pain in a small spot above the left eye, behind the brow; early in the evening sleepy; went to sleep while sitting. Then, at a late hour, ate soup with appetite, but had no desire to smoke. Went to bed early. Coitus normal. Afterwards headache. Toward morning, when waked up, the same headache internally in the left sinciput, in a small spot; it presses there like a hazel nut, continuing slightly through the morning.
Oct. 27. The second day, once again the same pain in the right metatarsus very distinctly. This morning, and several subsequent mornings, an external tensive headache over the whole left half of the head when lying on the right side, passing away when lying on the left side. Had, for weeks every morning, a stool, sometimes soft, sometimes harder, often with some blood. Since taking the Tellurium, also, every day a second stool like the first; so every following day for one week; later again, as had been the case some time before, every morning thin stool.
The fifth and sixth days, at the anterior margin of the left axillary cavity, a sensation as if it were thicker, as if there were a round tumor internally, and painful on pressure and by motion; it went away without becoming a boil.
He forgets and neglects much; also the writing down and even the observing of the symptoms; it is all too much trouble to him. When thinking of the one, or of any business, he forgets everything else, and on account of this, he neglects much that is necessary. A cough, which often came on by day or night in slight attacks, with a wheezing in the larynx without becoming loose, especially after smoking, drinking and much walking, or after going upstairs, came on again, and always toward morning, and with much violence; after a few days it became loose, and then ceased. After taking cold it came again, and then ceased permanently, so that even taking fresh colds did not bring it on again.
For one week a much more excited and powerful sexual instinct, but after that time this appeared to be entirely extinct; without any want of capability thereto, he renounces its indulgence for weeks without missing it. For six weeks continued sweat of the feet, especially anteriorly at the toes, somewhat ill-smelling. During the first week and now and then during the following, a peculiar twitching and distortion of the left facial muscles, often when speaking; the left angle of the mouth is drawn to the left, and upwards.
2. Dr. Charles G. Raue took, on the 18th of January, 1851, at 10.30, p. m., a few grains of the same original trituration, third centesimal. A little rough, scratchy sensation in the throat, not passing off by swallowing; sensation of coolness in the month and pharynx, as after having peppermint lozenges in the mouth, very distinct on drawing in the air.
Jan. 19, 10 a.m., a few grains of the third trituration. In the afternoon, a prickling itching at the scrotum; worse on the right side; then on the inside of the left thigh, high up; then low on the right side of the abdomen; then on the left side; later between the buttocks. After having been, during the forenoon, in sharp, cold air, slight burning sensation in the lips during the afternoon. Towards evening dull headache over the whole head. In the evening, about 10 o'clock, a few grains.
Jan. 20, in the morning, much secretion of slime from the posterior nares, of a saltish taste, like smoked herrings. Pressure of incarcerated flatus under the last ribs, first on the left side, then on the right, an hour and a half after breakfast.
Jan. 21, fasting, one grain. Early in the morning painful pressure or pain as if beaten in the os sacrum, worse when stooping, but not ceasing on getting up again; it extends, after a time, into the renal region, abating by walking in the open air, but returning after a short time when sitting. In the afternoon headache worse on the left side. At six p. m., headache worse in the fore part of the head. Nausea before the evening meal, ceasing by eating, together with the headache.
Jan. 22, in the morning, a prickly sensation of dryness in the fauces, worse on the left side. The left nasal passage is stopped; from the right a quantity of slime is secreted, towards behind. The pain in the sacrum begins again when standing in a stooping posture; is better when walking. After breakfast, the prickly sensation of dryness in the fauces is better. The pain in the sacrum is worse when lying upon the back; but when lying on the left side, it is worse towards the right. No stool for two days. Today, 11 a.m., a stool, not hard, composed of crumbs enveloped in some brown reddish slime. The whole forenoon, the left nasal passage is stopped from the right one; slime is running off by the posterior opening. 5 p.m., sensation of dryness in the throat. Very tired in the knees and lower legs; worse on the right side; the whole evening, drawing in the right leg posteriorly from the right posterior superior spinous process down to the calf; worst in the kneeholder. In the left forearm and hand heaviness and sensation of numbness, about ten p.m. The pain as if beaten across the sacrum; the drawing in the right leg, and the tiredness after lying down (11.30 p.m.) are so hard, that for awhile it prevents him from getting asleep, and compels him to frequently turn and twist. The sleep is very good, with amelioration of all the pains.
Jan. 23, morning. The pressing across the sacrum comes again immediately on stooping, and becomes almost intolerable when the stooping posture is persisted in. The sensation of dryness in the fauces, worse on the left side, comes again also in the morning, but is milder. In the forenoon it seems to him as if his ears were suddenly stopped. Whilst walking in the open air, and after doing so (11 a. m., to 12 m.,) the sensation of dryness in the fauces on the left side ceases; in its stead the right side becomes painful-worse on empty swallowing; the pain at the same time extends into the right ear, which feels internally as if stopped. The pains in the sacrum and leg cease by motion in the open air; sometimes itching in the car, with secretion of a thinner ear-wax than usual. Stool in the evening, the first part like that of yesterday, the last part softer. After the stool itching in the rectum. When pressing to stool, the pain in the sacrum increased; also when coughing and laughing. The pain then extends from the sacral plexus through the large foramen ischiaticum, along the great sciatic nerve down into the thigh; worse on the right side. About ten p. m., sensation of obstruction in the ears; worse on the left side. The sensation of dryness is always perceptible morning and evening.
Jan. 24. Wakened with sweat about four a. m. The slime in the posterior nares has been deposited as a yellow reddish rosin, which is hawked out in the morning. Sensation of dryness, involving the whole fauces, but worse on the right side. Obstruction of the right nostril; prickly soreness in the fauces when swallowing; worse on the right side. When walking in the clear, fresh air (11 a. m., to 12 m.), a fluent coryza develops itself, with hoarseness and watering of the eyes, with short cough and pressure in the middle of the chest, under the sternum; after being for some time in the open air it goes away again. About ten p. m., pinching in the abdomen; better after passing wind.
Jan. 25. On awaking, much thick slime in the nose; during the night he had breathed through the month. The nose sometimes stopped, sometimes free. Again, about eight a. m., pinching in the abdomen and stool, first thick, then diarrheic. On pressing to stool, on coughing and on laughing, aggravation of the pain in the sacrum, extending into the right thigh. On going out into the open air (eleven to twelve a. m.), again violent coryza with hoarseness, as yesterday. Towards evening dryness of the fauces.
Jan. 26, ten, a.m. Diarrheic stool. After stool urging in the rectum for awhile, with some burning; thereupon stronger retraction of the rectum. Sometimes, for an instant, a sensation as if air catches itself in the left eustachian tube. On taking a pinch of snuff, and on eructation of wind, the air catches itself in the left eustachian tube, as in a sac.
Jan. 27. Several times catching of air in the left Eustachian tube, as yesterday, when eructating or on taking snuff. In the evening sore throat, worse on the left side on empty swallowing. The pain and the sensation of dryness in the fauces go away when eating or drinking, during the entire proving.
Jan. 28. Pain in the first phalanx of the little finger of the left hand, as if he had fallen upon it; on touch and pressure no sore spot can be discovered; on moving it, it is painful; sore throat on empty swallowing, evening.
Jan. 30, 11.30 p. m., whilst going asleep, sudden desire for apples, which makes him wide awake again. Towards evening, in the left upper eyelid, toward the inner canthus, itching and pressure, as if a hair had grown in the wrong direction.
Dr. Raue's Proving, continued. - February 4th. He wakened early with a pale red, dropsical, biting, itching, swelling in the left upper eyelid; rather towards the inner angle. This swelling secretes some fluid; after a few days a scab forms.
First day. Drawing and dull pressure at the right scapula; soon afterwards also upon the left. Dull headache and dullness of the head. A sensation between roughness and pressure in the region of the larynx, which generally provokes a cough, passes gradually into a pure tickling. Slight stitches in the chest, transient, more on the left side. The dullness of the head becomes more perceptible. Internal chilliness with single shudderings. Pressure at the tonsils. Drawing, cutting pain around and in the left nipple, extending towards the scapula. Single pressure like stitches anteriorly at the forehead. Stitching pains lasting from three to ten minutes above the fifth rib, on the left side. The headache becomes more and more pronounced and consists of that unpleasant pressure above the eyes which is commonly felt after having been awake for several nights. Unpleasant drawing in the right hand, later involving the whole forearm. Sometimes tearing pains towards the elbow and in the palm of the hand towards the thumb-joint. Sensation as if the skin of the hands, especially of the right hand, were contracted, from the tips of the fingers downwards, so that it seems as if, on extending the fingers, one must stretch the skin forcibly. At the same time there was experienced in the ends of the fingers a kind of sensation as if dead.
Second day. The pains in the head have, for the most part, disappeared; but a coryza seems to set in. Afternoon, the coryza has set in - it is dry - after a few days it ran a natural course; it is only to he remarked that it appeared worse at irregular times.
After about five days, there appear on the left hand small red points, shining through the skin, which sometimes itch. The feet also itch, especially the left one, as though there were some heat-vesicles there. After the lapse of several days, there appeared, first on the calves and then extending up to the thighs, similar small red isolated points, which itch like those on the hand. The itching is especially in those spots where the skin perspires most. The abdomen seems not to be affected; but, after a few days, a number of similar pimples, itching like the others, appear in the epigastrium. On rubbing the parts that itch, these points become more visible. The itching is not unlike that caused by bed-hugs. From the epigastrium the eruption extends towards the left nipple; and lingers here as well as at the epigastrium longer than on the before mentioned localities; and it finally turns towards the left axilla. At the same time, also, it itches in various parts of the back. Meanwhile a spot is remarked on the right side of the forehead which is sore when pressed upon, as it a blow had once been received there, which he does not remember to have been the case, neither is there any red or blue spot to be seen. The itching now begins at the head, only at the posterior and superior parts, not towards the anterior part. When working quietly (sitting with the head bent forwards) without any provocation whatever, a sudden rush of blood towards the head, with perceptible reddening of the face, recovering irregularly, but almost daily twice, now in the morning, now in the afternoon. The itching at the head lasts about fourteen days and the rush of blood to the head recur for about the same period. At the same time, a peculiar kind of vertigo sets in, every evening while getting asleep, about a half hour after going to bed - a sensation as if he were wafted and drawn forth very quickly in the direction of his legs.
He is always wakened by it. It never returned later in the night. On the contrary, one day when he had gone to bed earlier than usual, about half-past eight o'clock, the sensation appeared in like manner, about a half-hour after he had lain down and when he was first getting asleep. This vertigo kept coming for eight or nine days, was interrupted at one time by two days of quiet sleep, returned and then ceased altogether. During the whole time, a good appetite and a disposition to drink a glass of beer oftener than common which always tasted good. Both later ceased.
4. Through C. Hering. A well educated woman took Trellurinm2, January 18th, at ten, p.m., on going to bed. After about one hour she felt a dull pain, deep internally in the whole length of the right thigh; later for a short time in the head, above and behind the left ear; then a pain in the pelvis at the left side, while the pain in the thigh continued. A sharp pain passed quickly over the toes of the right foot, then into the heel. She got asleep, lying on the left side, and awakened once in the night with a dull pain in the region of the heart, which passed away when she lay upon the back. No change of position had any influence upon the pain in the thigh.
19th. Very frequent urging to pass water, and a very unpleasant sensation if she cannot yield to the urging. Sudden cold weather had formerly a similar effect upon her, but to a far less degree. She walked today eight or nine miles and felt the effects so sensibly that she stopped taking the Tellurium until the fatigue should have passed over.
20th. The menses appeared in the afternoon, one day too early. She felt the effects of her walk, more particularly in the shape of a sticking pain through both temples, a pain from hip to hip and in both acetabula, for a whole day. On the left side, in the region of the uterus, across, in the groin and towards the hip violent stitches or cuttings
26th. Took a dose again in the morning. Whenever she has no pain, there is yet a sensation of weakness in the back, the whole day long. Ten p.m., another dose. After lying down a throbbing on the right side, superiorly in the pelvis.
27th. About ten, a.m., a pain above the left eye; it came suddenly and went as quickly; it seemed to have been caused by a sudden rush of blood thither. As it was passing off, the pain was accompanied by a sensation not easy to describe, along the left side of the neck, as if the blood there had suddenly been retained in one of the large veins, or had streamed backwards. Next followed a feeling in the stomach like weakness or faintness and a pain in the left chest. — Throughout the whole day, constant pain in the chest, anteriorly in the middle, sometimes extending; backwards between the shoulders and a dull unpleasant feeling in the head especially above the eyes. The weakness and the pain in the back continued.
28th. The pains change their locality more frequently this morning then yesterday; mostly on the left side of the chest, only now and then in the right chest and over the right eye; once or twice in the right shin. An hour and a half after dinner, heat of the face; the sinciput is hot; the gums bleed so that the mouth is full of blood.
She had already had these symptoms previously before the proving, but not lately and not in such strength. She had been reading the evening before until a late hour, which she was not in the habit of doing. The pains in the back and in the chest are quite unusual. They were so continuous and so violent that the prover was compelled by reason of them to remain at home in the afternoon.
29th, nine, a.m. Pain above the right eye after going out; the pain goes toward the temple; then in the flanks below the ribs, then in the right side of the pelvis, the right shin, then over the left eye, left ear, then into the right eye; at the same time she is chilly.
Latest, the pain over the eye and in the heart ceased, if, indeed, they do not again return. From the 21st to the 25th February no pain in the heart. This pain appears to be in the apex of the heart. She had something similar five or six years ago, but was then much more seriously affected. Some symptoms may have been produced by her occupation as public teacher, others may depend upon her age, forty years. She has a long walk to her school and labors there six hours a day. In the forenoon, in school, she had always a fullness and oppression in the epigastrium and was obliged to open and loosen her clothes. Ate much less, was obliged to lie down after eating, which however gave no relief; the oppression became indeed rather worse. The left thigh upon which she lay became numb and her feet cold. At last she took Nux vomica, lay down again and then slept better.
The symptoms, especially the attacks which compelled her to lie down, were more violent the first Tuesday after taking the medicine, came again the two following Tuesdays, but with less violence. The fourth Tuesday she was quite free, but they came again on Thursday and somewhat changed.
She reports on the 2d March that, several days previously, she had put on a somewhat tight petticoat, this was very uncomfortable and caused a return of the pain in the left groin which she had had several weeks before.
She should have mentioned that the disposition to become easily faint in the region of the stomach had often recurred. During the latter part of the proving, whilst having the pains in the heart, she had a great disposition to bend over forwards even so as to lie upon the face without being able to go to sleep in this position or without experiencing any relief from it.
5. Dr. Kitchen, of Philadelphia, took the third trituration. Pain in the left flank within the crest of the ilium. Pain in the sacrum, worse on stooping or when rising from a sitting or a recumbent position. The pain passes down in the right thigh in the direction of the sciatic nerve. It is, therefore, almost impossible for him to press when at stool.
Restlessness, fullness in the region of the upper part of the abdomen and of the liver. The pain in the sacrum and in the sacral ligaments was sometimes, when moving, like a stab with a knife. He had erections all night long, a thing which had never before happened to him.
6. Dr. Gardner, sen., took the third trituration, evening and morning. He dreamed at night of smoking cigars, a thing he never does. In the forenoon, when sitting, a burning in the right of the hepatic region and, later, a heavy painful pressure. The next morning, while dressing, a very violent attack of vertigo, which became much worse after walking out; he could hardly stand, was compelled to lie down and to remain at home several days. The vertigo caused nausea; after eating rice he was obliged to vomit. At every motion while he was lying down, even when he turned his head, still more on sitting up, the vertigo returned. At the same time, the pulse was more frequent. He had previously had similar attacks, also one severe after Glonoine. On other occasions Aconite had always helped him. This time it did not. Nor did Glonoine, nor Belladonna. It gradually passed away after three or four days.
7. Dr. Whitey took the second trituration, several grains, night and morning. In the fauces above the larynx, an itching and a kind of burning, as if he had scalded himself with a hot drink, lasting several days. After two or three days an eruption makes its appearance, such as he had never had. Small red pimples, very bright red and very sharply defined with minute vesicles upon them, first on the lower extremities, then also upon the upper, most on the left side; they began first on the outside of the calves, and then on the inside of the forearms, above the wrist, and spread from that point, caused very severe itching day and night, but worst at night after going to bed.
8. Dr. Gosewisch took the twelfth May 27th, 1851, at four, p.m. After supper very full in the abdomen, but not bloated. When lying on the left side, a throbbing sensation on the right side under the ribs, somewhat towards the epigastrium, as from wind balls, undulatory. In the morning, it is as if, when lying on the right side, wind had accumulated in the corresponding spot on the left side. Flatus does not pass oft so freely in the morning as is customary and the hitherto rather diarrheic stool intermits. Latterly the flatus became stinking. When lying on the loft ear, a kind of sharp pressing pain from the neck into the left ear. After a few days, an eruption; small red papules, which itch very much, on the abdomen, on the inside of the thighs and on the perineum. The itching is worse in cold weather. — Almost every remedy that he had ever before proved, gave him headache; this, however, did not. During and after the proving, his disposition much more quiet; for generally be is much disposed to fly into a passion.
Through Dr. Gosewisch, in June, 1851, took at five, p.m., a drop of the sixth potency of the latter preparation from the precipitate as before described. Slight dull toothache on the left side in teeth that had been filled with lead. Sensation of numbness in the abdominal walls, as if it were in the flesh, began below the umbilicus on each side of the same and extended around and upwards to the ribs, while he lay on the sofa after supper. Slight feeling of suffocation in the upper part of the throat. Palpitation of the heart and general throbbing through the whole body, with fullness of the pulse; after it had lasted an hour, copious sweat for an hour and a half. A metallic, earthy taste in the mouth. Feels empty and weak in the stomach, yet without appetite. Dull pain in the middle of the back between the shoulders. Sensation of numbness in the occiput and nape. Heartburn, a sensation of warmth, as after spirituous drinks, in the epigastrium and on both sides of the same. General sensation of warmth in the abdomen, as if after spirituous drinks. Expectorates white mucus, which is easily discharged. For a few minutes, itching at the anus. The next morning, the customary stool was lacking. Urine transparent, dark, easily evacuated, without pain. The sleepy, heavy condition, in which he was for several days before he began the proving, has vanished; instead thereof, a feeling of restlessness on going to bed. Some pain in the middle of the sternum. Some dull pain low down above the pubic region and anteriorly on both sides of the abdomen. Pain in the clavicle. After supper, he took a walk; on returning to the house, his knees, hips, elbows, and shoulder-joints were as if sprained and beaten. On every moment the brain felt as if bruised. Eructations, tasting of the food. Some pressure in the left chest above the first rib. In the morning, after deep sleep, with bad dreams, he felt heavy and dull. Skin hot and dry, sensation as if over-strained, as if bruised, as if he had taken cold after severe exertion. At the close of urinating, burning in the orifice of the urethra. The mouth feels pure and moist; he has again the natural taste.
Lassitude and weakness, then pains in the elbows, ankles and various parts, sharp and quick. Singular contracting sensation in the epigastrium as if the parts were folded together. When this sensation passed away, there remained a pain and being otherwise very lively, anxious and full of care. After she has, for some time, remarked nothing further, a pain and sensation of soreness began in the regions of the Kidneys. This extended downwards and over towards the abdomen with a pressing down as if by a weight, which increased during the whole night. Nightmare during the night. In the morning, the kidney pains were still worse, especially the sensation of soreness. She was also attacked in the right side of the abdomen, but worst of all, low in the back, which continued several days, with gnawing rubbing pains in the abdomen. The next day the head was heavy, full and sleepy. Constipation with much wind. Blind hemorrhoids. Pimples in the face.
11. Dr. J. W. Metcalf took one grain of the third trituration of the precipitated Tellurium, in dust form, prepared by Dr. Genth, August 14th, 1851, at five, p.m. After fifteen minutes, drawing, cramp-like pain, as it appears, in the supinator longus of the left arm, just below the bend of the elbow, and lasts half an hour. General warm sweat over the whole, body, when sitting, while writing. The afternoon was cool, and a pleasant sea breeze swept through the room. - Fine, sticking prickling in various parts of the skin, the whole afternoon and evening, very annoying; it compels him immediately to rub the spots. Nine, p.m., a second grain.
August 15tb. 6.30, a.m., a third grain; 10.30, a.m., a fourth grain. Already at 10.20, a.m., the fine sticking prickling came again; like flea-stings, here and there, during the whole day. Although no more Tellurium was taken, this itching sticking continued and became at many times very annoying, especially during repose. Not until after several weeks did it gradually vanish.
24th. The ninth day after the last dose, there appeared on a small spot or the forehead a ring-worm (herpes circinatus) just above the external angle of the right eye about a half inch above the brow. The prover does not remember ever having a similar affection. It was at first a small group of round vesicles upon a red areola. The vesicles dried up into small scabs and extended gradually at the external circumference; it itched and pricked but little.
31st. The spot is now completely circular, a half inch in diameter, consists of a ring of larger or smaller vesicles upon a red base which surrounds an areola apparently deeper [The Areola (Hof.) means here the spot encircled by the eruption; otherwise it is like the halo around the moon, that what encircles the eruption.] a red, desquamating spot without vesicles. It itches but little and produces thin white scales which detach themselves. The urine is acid, in smaller quantity, 17 1/2 ounces in twenty-four hours, dark red, sp. gr. 1030.
September 1st. The itching stinging became very troublesome, continued the whole evening and wandered over the entire body. A similar herpes to that on the forehead, appeared with intolerable itching on the left side between the last rib and the crista illii; it forms about three quarters of a circle and is not so regular as the at on the forehead. 2d. The urine the same as before, 22 1/2 oz., during the day.
25th. During the last week, the sixth from the first dose, the sticking pain in the skin was much less; but it was followed by a constant itching upon the scalp which compelled him to continually scratch it. This itching seems to come from an eruption; very small fine vesicles upon small and somewhat reddened spots, dry up within a few days and leave little white scales behind. This eruption is most frequent on the occiput, in the nape, at the margin of the hair, behind the ears, and on the posterior surface of the conchae. The itching has been constant for a week past and very annoying, and seems disposed to continue. The ring-worm on the forehead is diminishing; the ring has several open spots, is about three-quarters of an inch in diameter. But exactly above it another has appeared just like it, but smaller.
October 1st. The eruption on the head is almost gone; the itching has well nigh ceased; the first ring-worm on the forehead has disappeared, save that the skin where it was is still a little red. That on the side has also gone. But the second one on the forehead is still on the increase and forms about two-thirds of a circle. Now and then, though seldom, stitches in the skin. The urine is normal.
March 26th, 1852. P., a boy, three years old, lay on his mother's lap when I saw him, was very restless with great heat of the skin and full pulse; complained of thirst and headache; the whole body was covered with ring-worm, consisting of red elevated rings which were very distinctly marked, especially on the lower extremities. These spots appeared the evening before for the first time, the child having been ailing for a few days previously. The vesicles are very distinctly perceptible, even on a cursory observation. The rings intersect one another at the most various angles and are in many places so close that the circular form can hardly be appreciated. I gave Tellurium2 in water, a teaspoonful every two hours.
27th. Everything had disappeared, but the skin was still rough. The child is no longer hot and restless and makes no complaint. After a few days the patient was playing about as usual, and from that time continued well. Dr. Metcalf. [What is stated at second hand in Hirschel's Archive. 1, 121, concerning Metcalf's experiments, must be corrected by the above in particulars which to us are very essential]
13. Dr. Carroll Dunham, New York. The preparation used was the fourth centesimal trituration, prepared from some of the third trituration procured in 1852, from Boericke and Tafel, and stated by them to be part of a specimen received by them from Dr. C. Hering, and the same which Dr. Metcalf used in his proving.
The original records of this proving were sent, some years ago, to a former Secretary of the New York State Society and, unfortunately, lost by him. The following is a summary (from memory and a few imperfect notes) of the most striking effects. The statements of the time at which the symptoms followed the doses taking in the proving and of the order in which the symptoms occurred, must be regarded as only approximately accurate. The symptoms, it is believed, accurately stated.
About fifteen or twenty days after the first dose, the left ear began to itch, burn and swell. There were aching and throbbing pains in the external meatus, and, in the course of three or four days, there was a copious watery discharge from the ear, smelling like fish pickle.
This discharge was acrid and caused a vesicular eruption on the lower lappet of the ear and on the neck, wherever it touched the skin. The inflammation of the ear, generally, was not vesicular. The color was a bluish red, and the ear had the appearance of being infiltrated with water.
During the second month of the proving, the spine, from the last cervical to about the fifth dorsal vertebrae, became very sensitive and the seat of a peculiar sense of irritation which made the prover dread having the part touched or even approached. This dread was disproportioned to the actual sensibility of the part when pressed or rudely touched, for this sensibility was not really very great.
I have given the thirtieth potency of Tellurium in at least six cases of swelling, eruption and discharge from the ear, resembling the symptoms obtained in the above proving and attended by more or less deafness.
15. Cures by Dr. P. P. Wells, of New York; Dr. Wells, to whom Dr. Dunham's proving was shown about the time it was made, has given Tellurium 30 with satisfactory results in several cases of ear-affection resembling those described in the proving.
Since preparations have been made to prevent in the future the loss of the Tellurium in the technical working of the Tellurium - bearing Gold Ores of Transylvania (these Annals, L xxxiv,), and there being every prospect that this substance, hitherto so rare, will become more accessible and cheaper, it becomes a matter of interest to institute experiments regarding its physiological mode of action upon the living organism, even from this point of view, that it perhaps produces effects altogether peculiar and may perhaps in Some form or other find its application as a remedy in the healing art. Stimulated thereto by my honored teacher, Prof: Woehler, and furnished by him with material, I have instituted in his laboratory some experiments for the solution of this question, the results of which I will communicate in the following lines :
I have in vain sought for a continuation of Gmelin's experiments by other investigators; Kohlreuter observes that the salts of the oxide of Tellurium have a strong action; Christison in his Treatise on Poisons, (fourth edition, 1845) has quoted most of Gmelin's other experiments, but says nothing about those made with Tellurium. Neither has Orfila in his Traite de Toxicologie (cinquieme edition, 1852) made mention of experiments with Tellurium.
aid of a few drops of caustic potash, were injected. The animal immediately lost his liveliness, seemed to be stupefied and lay down quietly. After one minute his breath acquired an unpleasant garlic-like odor, which reminded one of the smell of the tellureate of ethyle, described by Woehler. After twenty minutes vomiting set in, which was frequently repeated in the course of the first hour; the appetite was lost. On the following day, the animal had recovered but gave out strongly the garlic-like odor of Tellurium. After it had eaten something, it received again 0.3 gramme of the salt. — The stupefaction and the vomiting followed as on the first day. The matters vomited, as well as the excrements, were mucus and black colored. Under the microscope it appeared that this coloring was due to black points which were not changed by the addition of alkalies, hydro-sulphuret of ammonia, or hydrochloric acid, but were speedily dissolved on being heated with nitric acid. In the afternoon of the same day, the dog received, with the same results, a third dose of 0.3 gramme; in all, therefore 0.9 gramme, or more than fourteen grains. After three days he had entirely recovered, but still smelled strongly of the Tellurium.
Experiment 2. - In this experiment I gave the Tellurous acid pure. A dog, of medium size, received 0.5 grammes (equal to eight grains) on a piece of meat; on the following day a similar dose. I observed, however, no other phenomenon there from than that his breath had acquired a weak Tellurium odor, and that the excrements of the second day were somewhat black colored. On the third day he received 0.7 gramme (equal to eleven grains) of bi-tellurite of potash, in the form of a solution. The odor manifested itself after one minute to a much greater degree; vomiting of mucus, black grayish masses set in; the excrements were black colored. The latter showed the same relation to reagents as the before mentioned: On the fourth day 0.7 gramme of the same salt was introduced into the stomach of the dog. After half an hour there occurred vomiting and discharge of a tenacious mucus from the mouth. He had, therefore, received altogether one gramme (equal to sixteen grains) of Tellurous acid, and 1.4 gramme (equal to 22 grains) of the bi-tellurite salt. On the seventh day 0.5 gramme (equal to eight grains) of the salt in solution was injected into the jugular vein. There followed a few convulsive movements, exoneration alvi, and in four minutes death. The abdominal cavity was immediately opened, whereupon the garlic-like Tellurium odor was strongly perceptible. There was found therein a half spoonful of a serous clear exudation, but no indications of a hyperaemia or inflammation. The stomach and intestines contained some bile, were otherwise empty; they showed no changes of structure. Their walls were colored, through and through, blue-black, so much so, indeed, that the coloring gradually decreased from the mucous to the serous coat. The liver upon its surface was somewhat darker than common, with a shade of grey but without inflammatory points as Gmelin saw it. The spleen was apparently normal, but the kidneys throughout their whole substance were of a blue-black color; so were all the glands, even the parotid. The walls of the bladder were bluish; the the right ventricle of the heart and the venae cavae were injected with blood. The lungs and likewise the brain and spinal marrow were of normal appearance. The blood serum was not of a violet color. The black coloring of the stomach, of the intestines, of the kidneys and of the glands appeared under the microscope to result from a deposit of black points which behaved toward reagents as above mentioned. The reaction of the urine was acid and the odor was decidedly that of Tellurium.
On both eyes there were cataracts; the bulbi were removed and opened, whereupon a distinctly perceptible Tellurium odor was diffused from the fluids which they had contained. My honored friend, Dr. Schrader, made some minute observations upon the eyes and had the goodness to communicate the following interesting facts:
“Upon the anterior surface of the lens of the left eye, particularly its centre and the vertices of the curves, a chalky mass had been deposited. Under the microscope this was found to consist of isolated, yet for the most part in compact heaps of deposited granules of varying size, which by transmitted light appeared black. They were not affected by caustic soda, nor by ammonia and hydro-sulph. of amm. They were slowly dissolved by concentrated acetic acid. — The centre of the lens was uniformly but to a much less degree turbid and still somewhat transparent. The central opacity depended likewise upon such deposits as above described. In the right eye there was a similar deposit, but it was much less extensive.”
The urine which the animal had passed during the last forty-eight hours, the liver and the stomach with the intestines, were each by itself, in three different vessels, treated with chlorate of potash and hydrochloric acid in the usual manner for the destruction of all organic matter. The fluids after being sufficiently boiled were filtered; sulphuretted hydrogen was passed through the filtrate, the resulting deposit was filtered, again brought into solution by being treated with chlorate of potash and hydrochloric acid, and to this solution, after being highly concentrated by a moderate heat, sulphurous acid was added. From this resulted black precipitates which were already, by their mode of origin as well as by the white margin upon the charcoal before the blowpipe, and the blue coloring of the flame, characterized as Tellurium.
Experiment 3. - A small young dog received in four days 1.2 grammes (nineteen grains) of Bi-tellurite of potash with the same results as in the previous experiments. On the ninth day he was killed. The autopsy confirmed in every part the observations made under number two. The inflammatory points in the liver cited by Gmelin were no more to be perceived than in number two. The blood serum had a normal color.
Experiment 4.-In this experiment in which a dog had received Tellurite of potassa, only this peculiarity is to be remarked: that the excrements, as early as a half hour after the administration of the salt, were colored black through and through. To the before mentioned gastric phenomena were added violent attacks of colic, tenesmus and diarrhea. But the beast had been already devoted to various experiments, hence was otherwise sick so that we dare not assume that these phenomena were due to the action of Tellurium alone, inasmuch as they did not appear in the other experiments.
Experiment 5.- I now determined to prove the action or Tellurium upon myself, and with this view I took for seven days, each day an hour before dinner, a definite dose of Bi-tellurite of potassa, dissolved in water by the aid of some Potassa (therefore strictly a neutral salt). During the first four days 3.0-4 grammes (more than half a grain), in the two following 0.05 grammes (almost one grain), and on the last 0.08 gramme (more than one grain). On the first two days sleepiness set in, which compelled me, contrary to my custom, to sleep for half an hour after eating. In the subsequent course of the experiment I no longer felt this sleepiness. In the first three days I thought I noticed an increased appetite, but subsequently this diminished more and more. After I had taken, on the seventh day, 0.8 gramme of the salt, there occurred oppression in the cardiac region, disposition to vomit without actual vomiting, and uncommonly copious secretion of saliva. The tongue was coated white and somewhat swollen, so that on its margin the impressions of the teeth were strongly marked. The appetite was lost. These gastric phenomena did not cease until after fourteen days. The most striking phenomenon in this connection was the garlic-like Tellurium odor, which my breath acquired. It was manifested already in the first minutes after the first dose of the salt, and it was still perceptible even seven weeks afterwards, indeed it was in the beginning so strong and so offensive to others that I was compelled to withdraw from society. There can be no doubt that it arises from a volatile organic Tellurium compound similar to the Telluric Ethyle.
In the urine which was passed twenty-four hours after the close of this experiment, I could discover no trace of Tellurium although one may suspect that while it was being taken it must have existed in this secretion also.
Experiment 6.-My friend, von Roeder, took before dinner 0.04 gramme (more than half a grain) of Bi-tellurite of potassa in solution. Already, after a few minutes, his breath also assumed the peculiar garlic-like odor which was immediately apparent to all who conversed with him, and who knew nothing of the experiment. There occurred frequently light eructation, he could however eat as he thought with more than usual appetite, then felt unusual sleepiness and actually fell asleep. In the course of this day there appeared in addition to the Tellurium odor no further effects. During the following day he took a dose of nearly one grain (0.05 gramme), there resulted eructation, but again, as he thought, increased appetite without further effects. But still, after three days, his breath betrayed the Tellurium odor.
Strictly speaking only an accidental observation which however well deserves to be cited in connection with the experiments. It was communicated to me by Prof. Woehler. While the latter was busied with his investigations of Telluric Ethyle, his breath had for several weeks the above mentioned odor of garlic, and, it happening once during this period that in consequence of taking cold he got into a very profuse perspiration during the night, the sweat gave out this offensive Tellurium odor to so great an extent that it was hardly tolerable - a phenomenon which he had opportunity to observe a second time during the, course of this work.
Although, it is not possible from these few first observations to form a clear idea of the mode in which Tellurium acts upon the living organism, still the facts related may furnish several points of view for further study. The black coloration of the contents of the stomach and intestinal canal which appeared soon after the taking of Tellurium, must come from the metallic Tellurium, as may be with great probability deduced from the behavior of the black colored substance under chemical reagents. It must, therefore, have undergone a process of reduction already in the primae viae. The coloring of the intestines, which is most decided in the mucus membrane, gradually decreasing toward the serous membrane indicates the direct absorption of the Tellurium reduced in the contents of the intestines. The violet coloring of the blood serum observed by Gmelin, indicates the presence of the absorbed metal. If, in the cases observed by me, the blood serum in the autopsy did not appear to be violet colored, the reason may have been that the animals on which I performed the autopsy were not killed until several days after taking the Tellurium, whereby the reduced metal suspended in the blood had time to deposit itself in the tissues, which therefore in my experiments were highly impregnated with it. Simultaneously with this reduction there evidently takes place, as was already mentioned, the formation of a volatile organic Tellurium” compound, which is excreted through the lungs and the skin, and which must have an extremely intense odor inasmuch as this odor is perceptible for so long a period, and therefore so long as even the most infinitely small minima continue to be excreted.
Duration of Action. - Drs. Kitchen, Gardner, Whitey, Gosewich and his provers observed only a few days; Raue, and Oscar Tietze three weeks. C. Hering and his female prover six weeks. Roeder, who took a grain and a half in the course of two days, still perceived the odor after eight days. Hansen, who took seven grains within seven days, perceived the gastric symptoms for fourteen days, the odor for seven weeks. The strength of the dose has therefore only a subordinate influence, viz., only on the secretion. The coryza lasted twelve days with Raue, Cooms and Oscar Tietze. The rush of blood to the head, fourteen days with Oscar Tietze, likewise the itching on the head. The reddened left eye on the 16th day. Raue. Pain over the left eye the 16th and 17th days. Cooms. Pain in the region of the heart the 17th day. Cooms. Aching spot upon the forehead more than three weeks. Oscar Tieze. Fullness of the epigastrium and oppression from the clothing in the fourth week and later. Cooms. Ring worms almost eight weeks. Metcalf. Eruption and pains in the back nearly two months. Dunham.
5. p. Very violent attacks of vertigo in the morning when dressing; on walking out it became so bad he could hardly stand; was obliged to lie down and to remain at home two days. Every time he sat up he became dizzy, even by every motion when lying and by simply turning the head. At the same time increased pulse; nausea, after rice he was obliged to vomit. Had previously somewhat similar attacks when Aconite gave relief, which it did not this time; also Glonoine which had caused a somewhat similar attack did not relieve, nor did Belladonna; returning after ten years, Opium relieved for a while; Glonoine200 relieved permanently. Gardner.
Sudden rising up of the blood towards the head (compare 13) with perceptible reddening of the face, now early in the morning, now in the afternoon at various hours, but twice almost every day, when sitting quietly at work; for fourteen days. O. T.
Ten, a. m., pain above the left eye, came suddenly, and went away just as suddenly, as if from a sudden rush of blood to this spot (compare 12). On going away, accompanied by a sensation difficult to describe along the left side of the nape, somewhat like a sudden stopping and backward flowing in a large blood-vessel. A sensation of weakness in the stomach followed. P.
In the seventh week after the passing away of the itching stinging in the skin, there began a constant itching upon the scalp, which compelled constant scratching; it came from an eruption of small, reddened spots with five very small vesicles, which after a few days dried up and desquamated mostly on the occiput, in the nape of the neck, at the border of the hair, behind the ears and on the posterior surface of the conchae of the ear. At the end of a week it had almost disappeared. Metcalf.
On the anterior surface of the lens of the left eye in its centre and the vertices of the curves a chalky white mass was deposited; isolated granules of various sizes, for the most part however, deposited in thick heaps, which, by transmitted light appeared black. Upon the right eye a similar but less appearance. Dog. 2. Schroeder, according to Hausen.
Itching and pressure in the left upper lid toward the inner corner, as if an eyelash were turned inward, evening. The next morning on awaking, a biting, itching swelling, pale, red, and edematous, until after a few days ascab forms. The tenth and following days. R.
The left ear began to itch, to burn, and to swell with painfulness and throbbing in the external meatus; after three or four days a discharge of a watery fluid, smelling like fish pickle, which caused a vesicular eruption upon the external ear and the neck wherever it touched the skin. The ear was bluish-red, appeared as if infiltrated with water. The sense of hearing was impaired. After about twenty days. Lasted about three months. Dunham. Thirteenth group.
When walking in the clear, fresh autumnal air from eleven to twelve, a. m., coryza comes on with hoarseness and lachrymation, short cough, pressure in the middle of the chest under the sternum; on continuing a longer time in the open air it passes away again; fourth day. R.
The ninth day after the last dose, a small ring-worm on the forehead just above the external angle of the right eye about a half-inch over the brow. First a small group of round vesicles upon a red areola; the vesicles dry up, desquamate, and upon the external circumference new ones appear, with little itching. After a week the eruption is completely annular, a half-inch in diameter, the internal portion throwing off thin white scales. During the fifth week it decreases; the ring has several interruptions and a diameter of three-fourths of an inch, but just above it another, altogether similar, has appeared. In the sixth week the seat of the first is scarcely reddened, but the second is still on the increase and forms two-thirds of a circle. Metcalf.
80. Early in the morning, prickly sensation of dryness in the fauces, worse on the left side; the left nasal passage is obstructed; from the right, there is secreted a quantity of mucus backwards; second day. R.
After the sensation of dryness on the left side of the fauces has ceased during a walk in the open air, the right side begins to be painful, worse on empty swallowing, whereby the pain extends into the right ear which always feels as if stopped; the third day. R.
Ate less on account of the fullness in the epigastrium and lay down after eating which, however, gave no relief. The oppression became worse, the left limb upon which she lay became numb, the feet were cold. Took Nux vom., lay down again, slept, and then was better. P.
In the stomach and intestines some bile, the walls colored blue-black through and through gradually decreasing from the mucous to the serous coat. The liver darker on its surface with a tendency to grey. Dog. Hausen.
Urine acid, diminished quantity (nineteenth day, seventeen and a half ounces; twentieth day twenty-two and a half ounces, specific gravity 10.30; gives almost one-twelfth solid constituents, then almost one-half urea). In one hundred parts, 42.94 urea, 0.114 uric acid, 27.71 incombustible salts, 28. organic substances; these four, therefore, were proportioned to each other almost as 3, 1, 2, 2. The coloring constituents were altogether preponderating. In the eighth week the urine was normal. Metcalf.
In the afternoon, prickly itching at the scrotum, worse on the right side, later internally on the left thigh high up, then on the right side of the abdomen, then on the left, and finally between the buttocks. P.
Evening, pain and sensibility of the region of the kidneys, which after a while extends to the lower part of the abdomen, with a pressing downward as from a weight; increased the whole night; she had night mare, and in the morning the pain was still worse and combined with great sensibility; the right side especially was effected, but the pain was worst of all in the sacrum, where it continued until the next day with a tormenting pain in the hypogastrium. F. Gsw.
The breath even after a minute acquired an unpleasant garlic-like odor like that of the Telluric Ethyle described by Wohler; after eleven grains of Tellurite of potash. With others the breath got a weak Tellurium odor after eight grains Tellurous acid; became stronger already after one minute. Dog. 1, 2. Hausen.
The Telluric odor of the breath manifested itself already in the first minutes after the first dose of Tellurite of potash, and was so strong and so offensive to others that he was obliged to keep out of society; it was still perceptible even seven weeks later. Hausen. He had during one week taken 0.34 grammes, i.e., about four grains of Tellurate of potash.
On the left side of the nape a sensation like a sudden detention and regurgitation in a large blood vessel, after pain and rush of blood above the left eye. 13. 205. Sensation of numbness in the nape and occiput. 40. Dull pains in the middle of the back between the shoulders. N. Gsw.
The spine from the last cervical to the fifth dorsal vertebra, sensitive to pressure and touch with a fear, when these were threatening, already on approaching, as if it were much more sensitive, than it really was. This sensitiveness seems to radiate, and especially upwards into the nape, sidewards into the shoulders, forward through the trunk, as far as the sternum. The distress is increased by exertions but only partially relieved by repose. Appeared during the second month and continued almost for two months. Dr. Dunham.
Early in the morning painful pressure or pain as if beaten at the sacrum, worse when stooping, but not passing away on resuming the upright posture; after some time it extends in the form of a drawing pain into the region of the kidneys; is diminished by walking in the open air, soon comes again when sitting. R.
The beaten pain across the sacrum, the drawing in the right thigh (compare 220) and the tiredness are so violent after lying down, eleven-and-a-half, p. m., that for awhile they prevent sleeping and compel frequent turning and twisting; second day. R.
220. The sacral pain increases when pressing to stool, when coughing and laughing, then extends from the sacral plexus through the great sciatic foramen along the sciatic nerve, down into the thigh, especially the right side. R.
Sacral pain, worse when stooping or when standing up from sitting or lying posture, extends down the right hip in the direction of the sciatic nerves. The pain makes it almost impossible for him to strain at stool. K.
Shoulder as if beaten, after walking. 362. 225. In the anterior wall of the left axillary cavity an internal swelling as if a boil were about to appear; it pains on pressure and on motion; but passes away after a few days; fifth and sixth day. C. Hg.
Sensation as if the skin on the hands had contracted, especially on the right hand, so that it seems, on stretching out the fingers, as though one must forcibly stretch the skin from the ends of the fingers; at the same time a kind of dead sensation in the ends of the fingers. O. T.
The pains during the morning change their locality more than the previous day and are more on the left side; only now and then on the right side in the chest and over the right eye, once or twice in the right tibia; tenth day. P. At nine, a. m., after going out, pain over the right eye comes toward the temple, then toward the chest below the ribs; hereupon into the right side of the pelvis and into the right shin; later over the left eye and left ear; then over the right eye; at the same time chilliness; eleventh day. P.
Sensation of numbness in the occiput and nape of the neck, 40; in the abdominal walls, 140, in the left forearm and hand, 227; sensation, as if they were dead, in the ends of the fingers, 231; the thighs fall asleep. 107.
Peculiar vertigo from the second week, recurring eight or nine days; every evening while going to sleep about half an hour after lying down, no matter whether he go to bed earlier or later; a sensation as if he were drawn away forcibly and very quickly in the direction of his legs, where-upon he wakens; not recurring the same night. O. T.
As he chanced once., while busy with Telluric aethyle, to get into a very profuse perspiration at night, after taking cold, the sweat possessed so strongly the repulsive Tellurium odor that he could hardly endure it. Woehler.
General warm sweat over the whole body when sitting writing on a cool summer afternoon, with open windows and a sea breeze; simultaneously (compare 313) sticking itching, after a half hour; lasting several hours. Metcalf.
In the course of a few days, after the eruption on the thigh, innumerable small, red, itching points appear at the epigastrium, which become more perceptible by rubbing, with an itching, as after bed-bugs. From the epigastrium the eruption extends to the left nipple and continues longer there (as in the epigastrium) than it did in the spots first affected; it finally goes to the left axilla. At the same time various spots on the back itch; later also at the head, but only behind and above. O. T.
Eruption of small red spots, very bright red and sharply defined with minute vesicles, appeared first below, then above, on the outsides of the calves and on the inside of the forearms, especially above the wrist, and more on the left side. The itching was very severe day and night, worse at night, especially after going to bed. Whitey.
* With great heat of the skin and full, quick pulse, very restless, complains of thirst and headache. The whole body covered with ringworm, consisting of red, elevated rings, very distinctly marked, especially on the lower extremities. It first broke out the previous evening, after being unwell for several days; the vesicles very clearly perceptible. The rings intersect each other at the most various angles, in many places so closely together that the annular form is hard to be recognized. After three weeks, every two hours.
On the right side in the thigh, then left in the head and pelvis, pains, P. 238; right, in the scapula, pressure, then also left, 223; right, itching at scrotum, then left at the thigh, then right, then left, itching at side of abdomen, 166; right, sore throat, fourth day; left, seventh day. 89. 90. 92.
Morning; when dressing attack of vertigo, 5; external tension at head, 37; nose obstructed on right side, 56; dry in fauces, 83; and evening, throat dry, 87; pain in fauces on swallowing, 90; pinching in abdomen, then stool, 144; pain in sacrum, 213. Pain in sacrum from a stooping attitude, 217; sacral pain 219.
Evening; headache, 28; itching and pressure in the eye, 43; ears obstructed, 49, and throat in the morning dry, 87; sore throat on empty swallowing, 91, 92; after eating, fullness in the abdomen, 125; pinching in the abdomen relieved after discharge of wind, 113; numbness of the integuments of the abdomen, 143; stools (instead of in the morning) 150; stool, 152; pain in the forearm and hand. 227.
|Source:||The American Homoeopathic Review Vol. 05 No. 01, 1864, pages 26-33, pages 75-80, pages 125-130, pages 166-174, pages 218-222, pages 366-369, pages 426-428, pages 466-470, pages 507-517, pages 542-556|
|Description:||Provings of Tellurium.|
|Editing:||errors only; interlinks; formatting|