According to Whler and Liebig, the hydrocyanic acid, formerly supposed to be contained in the almond, is the result of the reaction of water on amygdalin, the characteristic constituent of bitter almonds.
The observations of Jrg, made in 1822, hardly deserving to be called a proving, were published in 1825. Regarding his trustworthiness, see British Quart., XVI, 693. These were added to a collection of symptoms from the Laurocerasus, the Aqua laurocerasi, and Hydrocyanic acid, and printed in Hartlaub's Mat. Med., in 1828. In 1844 they were printed separately in Noak and Trinks' Handbuch, with the addition of some toxic symptoms. Allen's Encyclopaedia contains all, and a carefully made, almost complete collection of poisonings. We only miss Gazin, Trait Pratique, 1853. The experiments of Douglas Maclacan are with a different preparation.
Loss of consciousness.
Delirium, he mutters to himself and converses with persons not present; speaks incoherently.
Delirium with face lit up with an expression of excessive joy, eyes shine brilliantly, with quiet intermittent pulse.
Delirium with slight convulsions.
She commences to cry; t.
She suddenly raves and looks wildly around her, with dilated pupils and indistinct vision.
Dullness of left half of head.
Excitement as after drinking champagne, succeeded by sudden insensibility.
Syncope, face deathly pale, nauseated; pulse imperceptible; on reviving vomits some undigested food and bile.
Vertigo with nausea and dimness of sight.
Faintness and pallid look.
Dimness of sight with vertigo.
Pupils very much contracted, size of a pinhead.
Pupils dilated and fixed.
Eyes rolling from side to side; half open, with dilated pupils.
Eyeballs directed upward, especially left.
Pupils dilated to their fullest extent, she cannot see distinctly.
Eyes almost protruding from their sockets.
Excessive brilliancy of eyes, even after death.
The eye had a brilliant and glassy appearance throughout; mere physical brilliancy without mental expression.
Lid does not move when eye is touched.
Eyelids closed, both eyes drawn to left side.
Eyes half shut and glassy.
Upper lids convulsed for hours.
Face wears a natural expression, even with serious symptoms.
Face placid and deathly pale.
Mouth tightly closed.
Face very livid, lips separated, teeth clenched, eyes fixed and open, pupils dilated, features distorted, eyes turned upward, starting from their sockets.
Face lights up with an expression of excessive joy.
A disagreeable sensation seems to come from epigastric region.
Pain and heat in epigastrium without tenderness.
Gastric mucous membrane red, congested, especially at cardiac end; t.
Gastric mucous membrane pale with some red petechial patches along greater curvature; t.
Mucous coat of stomach softened; t.
Snoring breathing getting slower and slower.
Chest heaved spasmodically; its movements were hurried.
Respiration slow and gentle.
Regular respiration had ceased; chest expanded at intervals by convulsive action.
Rolling and panting for breath.
Hurried and convulsive heaving of chest.
Chest expands convulsively at short intervals.
Respiration 12, regular, slow and prolonged, with rattling in throat.
Convulsive and at intervals very short respiration, with fear of suffocation.
Slow, full, hard pulse.
Pulse almost imperceptible.
Absence of radial pulse on either side.
Heart beats feebly.
Carotids beat full and quick.
Heart's palpitation extremely feeble, scarcely perceptible, absence of radial pulse.
Pulse: slow and vibrating; strong or frequent and wiry; rapid and feeble; quick and intermittent; 30, very feeble in carotid and radial arteries; 100, 130, 140, very small, thready.
Right side of heart gorged with dark fluid blood.
Limbs cold, heavy.
Extremities almost bloodless.
Spasms of limbs.
Weakness of limbs.
Limbs relaxed, feet lifeless when lifted.
Limbs numbed, arms and hands cold and livid; with sleepiness.
Limbs supple and powerless.
Muscular power diminished or entirely lost, he is afraid of falling.
So weak as to fall down, lost control over muscles.
Spasms of limbs.
Convulsions; head drawn back; trismus, knees drawn up; scanty urine; opisthotonos.
Strong convulsive twitches of muscles.
Almost complete loss of motive power; cannot stand, limbs as if lifeless; or staggering gait.
Convulsions: eyes open, staring, fixed pupils, or with jactitation of arms.
Violent tetanic convulsions with complete opisthotonos.
Head and neck drawn backward, elbows drawn behind back and firmly fixed there.
A disagreeable sensation proceeding from scrobiculum.
Pain: in epigastrium.
Stitches: under left nipple.
Burning heat: in laryngo-pharyngeal region.
Soreness: of chest extending to stomach.
Pressure: over eyes.
Dullness: of left half of head.
Numbness: in limbs.
Heaviness: in forehead.
Weight and oppression: on top of head.
Heat: in epigastrium.
Coldness: of limbs.
Nearly identical with Amygd. persic.
Similar to its relatives, especially the Pruneae and Pomeae of the Rosaceae, and to Manihot util., Chardinia xeranthemoides, Ximenia Americana, Ipomoea dissecta and the Agaricus Oreades, all of which emit Hydr. ac. Also similar to: Opium (spasms, stertor, slow pulse, stupor, etc.); Hyosc. (weeping, spasms, spasmodic twitching, etc.); Stramon., Bellad.; Tabac.; Ant. tart.; Laches. and Naja tri. (heart).
Chewing the kernels prevents drunkenness from wine.
Amygd. amar. has dullness of left half of head, Hydr. ac. of right.
Both Amygd. and Laucroc. have heaviness in forehead.
Amygd. amar. is antidoted by: Opium (convulsions), and by strong coffee, and in bad cases cold water may be poured over head.